Krakatau Volcano, Indonesia.

 

 

Type of volcano: Caldera.    

Location: Sunda Strait, Indonesia.

Altitude: 814m.(Rakata) (Anak krakatau 324m (May 2011) )

 

Krakatau, is a volcanic island made of lava in the Sunda Strait between the islands of Java and Sumatra in Indonesia. The name is used for the island group, the main island (also called Rakata), and the volcano as a whole. The island exploded in 1883, killing approximately 40,000 people, although some estimates put the death toll much higher. The explosion is considered to be the loudest sound ever heard in modern history, with reports of it being heard nearly 4,800 km from its point of origin. The shock wave from the explosion was recorded on barographs around the globe.

 

A new island volcano, named Anak Krakatau or Child of Krakatoa rose above the waterline in 1927. Anak Krakatau has grown at an average rate of five inches (13 cm) per week since the 1950s. This equates to an average growth of 6.8 metres per year. The island is still active, with its most recent eruptive episode having begun in 1994. Quiet periods of a few days have alternated with almost continuous Strombolian eruptions since then, with occasional much larger explosions. 

 

Read more in depth Information about Krakatau at The Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program

Information on my montly trips to Krakatau, and how to join: Read more

 

 

 

 

Krakatau photography 2009-2014

 

Note: The photos are arranged in pages according to time, for viewers to be able to follow the activity/situation over time. Open the different pages by clicking the front photo/link to see the contents (photos and videos) of the relevant visit.

 

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6th June 2014

Krakatau, according to my knowledge, hasn`t erupted since 2013. During this visit a modest steam plume was observed from Anak Krakatau, but no new evidence of any recent eruptions. I also had the chance to fly my drone (Phantom) over Anak-Krakatau, and took some decent photos of the top area, however the plume obscured views directly into the crater area.

 

Photos: 14 available in format/size: RAW/JPG - 5182 x 3456 pixels in this post. Total of 1000+ photos not presented on the website.

 

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9-11th November 2013

The Krakatau observatory (PVMG) in Pasauran reported a sharp increase in shallow earthquake volcanic-A in the first week of November, accompanied by volcanic tremor. The gas emission of Anak-Krakatau seem to have increased the last month. The red-glow from the crater was much stronger than observed on any other of my visits the last 6-months..

 

Photos: 20 available in format/size: RAW/JPG - 5182 x 3456 pixels in this post. Total of 1000+ photos not presented on the website.

 

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4-5th October 2013

 

Visited the Krakatau observatory on the 4th October, before crossing the Sunda-Strait to Krakatau. Seismicity had increased to high levels in the afternoon of the 3rd October and the seismograph showed a similar high signal output during our visit on the 4th October. Visual observation at Krakatau on the 4th and 5th October showed a steady amount of gas being emitted, the majority of it from the S/SW part of the crater. During the night a relatively bright crater-glow was observed, caused by active fields of escaping hot gas..

 

Photos:16 available in format/size: RAW/JPG - 5182 x 3456 pixels in this post. Total of 300+ photos not presented on the website.

 

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7-8th June 2013

 

Visited the Krakatau observatory on the 7th June before my visit to the volcano. Seismic levels have been low the past week, the lowest the observatory have recorded in at least a year.

 

Krakatau, according to my knowledge, hasn`t erupted since March earlier this year. My remote camera stationed at Krakatau did not capture any eruptive activity during April, May and the first week of June. Remote photography is altough ongoing.

 

Photos:15 available in format/size: RAW/JPG - 5182 x 3456 pixels in this post. Total of 500+ photos not presented on the website.

 

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11-12th May 2013

 

Visual observation at Krakatau during my visit in May showed a steady plume of gas emitted, and the southern part of the crater had a faint red-glow, only visible during night, but hardly observable with the eyes and mostly only recognized on long exposure photos.

 

Because of the low seismic levels at Krakatau at the moment, I allowed myself and the group I was visiting the volcano with, to have a closer look at some of the material ejected during the recent eruptions of Anak Krakatau.

 

Photos:14 available in format/size: RAW/JPG - 5182 x 3456 pixels in this post. Total of 500+ photos not presented on the website.

 

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12-14th April 2013

 

According to my field camera, that has been taken photos and videos continuously from the 31st March to 12th April, every hour of the day and night, no eruptions occurred. Interviews of the forest-rangers living at Anak-Krakatau confirmed this. In this period the volcano seem to have only emitted a more or less steady plume of gas, mostly blown to the N/NE.

 

During my visit on the 12-14th April, the trend was the same and no eruptions took place. A pulsating glow of red material was seen in the nights, occurring in the S/SE part of the crater

 

Photos:13 available in format/size: RAW/JPG - 5182 x 3456 pixels in this post. Total of 500+ photos not presented on the website.

 

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28-31th March 2013

 

Anak-Krakatau erupted on the 28th and 29th March 2013.  The first eruptions on the 28th was captured by my field camera, and the eruption on the 29th was captured personally after my arrival to Krakatau on that day.

 

Photos: 19 available in format/size: RAW/JPG - 5182 x 3456 pixels in this post. Total of 500+ photos not presented on the website.

Video: 2 (more available on request)

 

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22-24th March 2013

 

Anak-Krakatau erupted on the 11-12nd of March 2013, the first confirmed eruption after the September 2012 eruption, according to the Indonesian Volcanological Survey (PVMBG) in Pasauran, West Java. During my visit to Anak Krakatau on the 22-24th I found evidence of the March eruption, however no eruptions during my 3 day stay at Krakatau...

 

Photos: 23 available in format/size: RAW/JPG - 5182 x 3456 pixels in this post. Total of 750+ photos not presented on the website.

Video: 1

 

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6-7th October 2012

 

Anak Krakatau did not produce any eruptions on this visit, one month after my last visit during the big eruption. According to local knowledge, Anak hasnít erupted since the eruption in September. During this visit it only emitted a weak and irregular plume of steam. During nighttime we observed some small spots of glowing lava, near and on the lava flow on the western flank on the volcano, which during daytime still is steaming.


The most interesting aspect of this visit was to study the new lava flow..

 

Photos: 14available in format/size: RAW/JPG - 5182 x 3456 pixels in this post.

 

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3th September 2012

 

Krakatau volcano is now seeing a major increase in activity. On Sunday, large booming sounds could be heard in the villages of Carita and Anyar. Approaching Krakatau on morning on 3th September, we heard multiple continuous booms on the boat trip towards Krakatau, and as we approached, we could see an 1km high plume from Anak Krakatau`s main vent, lava bombs was ejected 2-300m up in the air. The ash column is mainly drifting towards Sumatra. More significantly, we also noted very soon, an area on the south-eastern shore of Anak-Krakatau that emitted a large plume of steam. The local crew/guides who joined our group looked very surprised and worried, as we all noticed these major changes. I first thought this was the result of new geothermal activity, but realised later that this was in fact a new lava flow/a crater vent collapse. This most likely happened on the night between the 2th/3th September..

 

 

Photos: 71 available in format/size: RAW/JPG - 5182 x 3456 pixels in this post.

Video: 2

 

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3th September 2012, overview of the current sitation.

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2-3 June 2012

 

Activity on my last visit on the 2-3 June showed a decrease in activity from the conditions I observed in the first week of May, and even more so compared to the month of April. The red glow from the crater was almost non-observable during this visit. The white steam clouds emitted from Anak Krakatau only reached a height of 50-100m on this visit, and were at times non-existent, a decrease from the May conditions, when it reached up to 200meters.

 

Photos: 6 available in format/size: RAW/JPG - 5182 x 3456 pixels in this post. Total of 100+ photos not presented on the website.

 

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6-8th May 2012

 

The visual activity at Krakatau has decreased some the last weeks and was confirmed during this visit. Steaming from the crater reached a height of 100-200 meters, and seemed less intense than during the visit in April. Red glow during night was again visible - but weaker/less intense than last month. My group visited the crater on the evening of the 7th of April: footage taken by Pierre Fortine showed no sign of any lava dome, but the red glow that is often clearly visible at night from Verlaten, Lang or Rakata - are in fact multiple glowing vents (some of them were gas vents that were burning) and red hot material surrounding them. The lava dome that people have claimed to observe trough February to April may have been destroyed during the last small eruptions that I reported of in April. Shallow earthquake data recorded by the Krakatau Volcano Observatory in Pasauran (PVMG) shows that the level of activity remains on the relative same level as last month.

 

Photos: 18 available in format/size: RAW/JPG - 5182 x 3456 pixels in this post. Total of 500+ photos not presented on the website.

 

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6-7th April 2012

 

 

The crater was illuminated by lava (dome) in the night, the location of the light is the southern part of the crater. 

On the morning of the 7th April 2012 Anak Krakatau started to produce small eruptions from the southern part of the crater. The location of the eruption was on the same side of the crater, that of the growing lava dome, which several sources have reported about during the last few weeks. This might suggest a collapse of the Lava dome due to the eruptions that now are being seen? (continues in the article)

 

Photos: 16 available in format/size: RAW/JPG - 5182 x 3456 pixels in this post. Total of 400+ photos not presented on the website.

Timelapse video: 1

Normal videos: 1

 

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12-14th February 2012

 

 

 

Visited Krakatau for the second time in 2012 on my monthly trip to the volcano. This time I had the pleasure of travelling with a Irish guy called Joe who turned out to be a great photo companion. He is working for a university in England were he is teaching art, so im looking forward in seeing his results from this trip, as I could see he had a good eye for compositions.

 

Regarding the status of the volcano, the Indonesian Volcanological Survey (PVMBG) downgraded the alert level from 3 out of 4 to 2 out of 4 on the 26th January. The reason is the reduced frequency of shallow volcanic earthquakes during the last 2 months. However on this trip to Krakatau I observed medium to heavy venting from the crater and fumarolic activity, at some higher levels than last month.

 

Type of activity observed: Continuous steam/gas emissions reaching 100-500m. in height. Activity caused the crater to be illuminated by lava at night. No eruptions. More information about the status of the volcano during the period of observation can be found in the weekly status report.

 

Photos: 21 available in format/size: RAW/JPG - 5182 x 3456 pixels in this post. Total of 400+ photos not presented on the website.

 

Timelapse video: 1

Normal videos: 1

 

See the photos

 

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8th January 2012

 

 

Visited Krakatau briefly on Sunday 8th January on what should have been a overnight trip but what ended up on being a short 3 hour visit. The earthquake swarm at Krakatau that started in the end of September, which peaked with 5-6000 shallow earthquakes a day in October/November is now at a level of 3-400. I observed minor strombolian activity on my visit on the night on 13th November, but on this visit I observed no such activity. Locals in the area confirmed no activity in the last weeks. Additionally according to the MODIS thermal monitoring of global hotspots system, there have been no hotspot activity at krakatau since the 28th of November 2011. However, remembering the large earthquake swarm seen a couple of month back and the heavy venting seen at Krakatau at the moment, activity will most likely pick up soon.

 

Because of the short period of the visit and me having to plan for the return to Java, trough un-predictable weather and heavy seas of the rainy season, there was not much time for photography on this trip.

 

Type of activity: Continuous steam/gas emissions reaching 2-300m. in height.

Photos: 6 available in format/size: RAW/JPG - 5182 x 3456 pixels.

 

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12-13th November 2011

 

 

Activity on the Anak Krakatau volcano has picked up the last week, so decided to head there on the weekend. Spent one night on Verlaten Island, which is a island situated 1km west of the active Anak Krakatau. Had a magnificent evening with clear weather and a full-moon, a perfect setting for photographing eruptions during the night. I did not sleep a second.

 

Type of activity: Strombolian eruptions. Intervals of the eruptions varied between 30seconds to a few minutes. The eruptions were low to modestly strong, often accompanied by quite strong sounds from the volcano. Lava bombs ejected by the volcano did not travel far from the crater, as most of the material was ejected straight into the air and fell back into the crater, causing the crater to almost constantly being illuminated by the lava during night, something I have never seen before at Krakatau. No ash emissions. 

 

Photos: 19 available in format/size: RAW/JPG - 4752 x 3168 pixels. 1000+ other photos not presented on this webpage.

 

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8-9th October 2011

 

 

This is a one minute part of the recording from the Krakatau seismograph of Saturday 8th october.

 

Type of activity seen: Steam/gas emissions. The seismograph recorded more than 5000 shallow earthquakes on 9th of October.

 

Photos: 3 available in format/size: RAW/JPG - 4752 x 3168 pixels.

 

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Seismograph readings at the Krakatau observatory, Pasauran, West Java. (Saturday 8th October) The seismograph recorded more than 5000 shallow earthquakes on this day.

 

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13th August 2011

 

Revisited "the Anak", as my Indonesian friend Sam, who often accompany me to the Volcano, usually calls it. "Anak" being the Indonesian word for child, it really is growing in size. I can now really see that a lot of mass have been added since January. The majority of ejected material still falls down on the southern flank, although some material obviously end up on the other sideís as well.

 

During this visit, Anak Krakatau wasnít emitting anything but gas. This gave me the opportunity to visit the island itself. I came ashore on the western side of the island, but only ventured a few tens of meters in front of the forested area. I had reports that it had just recently stopped with its normal strombolian eruptions, and didnít want to risk anything, having the explosive eruptions in June fresh in memory. On the western side I observed many recently ejected lava blocks and some lava bombs. I even brought a nice sample of one of the ejected blocks home, weighing around 4kg, the people who accompanied me on the trip probably thought I lacked a decent hobby..

 

Beside one-shot photography, I also made a 30second time lapse video from the Anak krakatau volcano that emitted gas on 13th August 2011. Unfortunately photo conditions werenít optimal during the time I made the time lapse, very hazy.

 

Type of activity: Continious gas emissions.

 

Photos: 22 available in format/size: RAW/JPG - 4752 x 3168 pixels.

 

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Western side of Anak Krakatau . A small forested area can survive here, as they dont get hit by that many lava bombs as the other flanks.

 

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25-26 June 2011

 

Anak Krakatau had not shown much activity since January/February 2011, so I made a trip as fast I got news that it had started had entered a new phase of eruptions. Spent the night on the beach on one of the remaining islands from the old Krakatau, that blew up in 1886. The intervals between the eruptions were between 30min to 4 hours, and during the night I only successfully caught 3. The eruptions with visual lava bombs being thrown out of the crater, only lasted for approximately 10 seconds. Interestingly I also observed local lightning above the crater during the eruptions at night.

 

Intervals between eruptions: 30min to 4 hours.

Type of activity: Possible volcanian eruption seen. A few small pyroclastic flows. Lava bombs and volcanic blocks ejected during eruptions. Lightning seen in the ash-plume during night.

 

Photos: 18 available in format/size: RAW/JPG - 4752 x 3168 pixels. 500+ other photos not presented on this webpage.


 See the photos

 

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22th January 2011.

 

Anak Krakatau was very active, and had strombolian eruptions 4-6 times per hour. An very interesting experience, however high caution had to be taken during the trip, especially since I was taking some students with me on this trip.

 

Intervals between eruptions: 5min to 45min.

Type of activity: Strombolian eruptions.

 

 

Photos: 23 available in format/size: RAW/JPG - 4752 x 3168 pixels. 500+ other photos not presented on this webpage.

 

See the photos

 

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15th November 2009

 

 

My first trip to Anak krakatau. The volcano was not active during the visit, therefore we found it safe to land on the island and take a short trip up one of it`s flanks.

 

Intervals between eruptions: none.

Type of activity: Minor gas emissions.

 

 

 

Photos: 5 available in format/size: JPG - 3888 x 2592 pixels.

 

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ōystein Lund Andersen © 2013

Contact: Andersen_oystein@hotmail.com